Chapter 12
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Disagreement over severity



Forgive the south

Radical Republicans in Congress


Punish the south

Andrew Johnson became president

1865-after Lincoln was shot

Continued Lincoln's policy of mild reconstruction

States could be readmitted to Union if:

Declare secession illegal

Swear allegiance to the Union

Promise not to pay Confederate debts

Ratify Thirteenth Amendment

Abolished slavery

All southern states except Texas accepted Johnson's terms

Thirteenth Amendment ratified

Many former southern Congressmen took their old seats

Johnson gave them all pardons

Radical Republicans were outraged

Johnson vetoed two bills passed by Congress in 1866

Enlargement of the Freedmen's Bureau

Gave food and clothing to former slaves and needy whites

Civil Rights Bill of 1866

Gave blacks citizenship and forbade states from passing discriminatory laws

Southern states passed Black Codes

Laws aimed at regulating the economic and social lives of freed slaves

Varied from state to state

Generally blacks could legally marry, own property, sue in court, and go to school

They could not serve on juries, carry weapons, testify against whites, marry whites, be out past a curfew, travel without a permit, or start their own business

Congress refused to recognize state governments set up under Johnson's agreement

Moderates sided with Radicals to override Johnson's veto of Freedmen's Bureau

Congress passed the Fourteenth Amendment

Johnson urged southern states to reject it

All but Tennessee did

Most Northerners would have been satisfied with this

1866 Congressional elections

Referendum on mild or radical reconstruction

Radical Republicans gained a 2/3 majority

Led by Thaddeus Stevens

First Reconstruction Act passed in 1867

Divided all southern states except Tenn. into five military districts

Civilian courts replaced by military tribunals

Each district placed under the control of a military officer who oversaw the drafting of new state constitutions

Each state had to give blacks the right to vote

Each state had to ratify the 14th Amendment

Vetoed by Johnson

Overridden by Congress

Johnson was impeached

Tenure of office Act

Removal of cabinet officers

2/3 vote in Senate

Johnson fired Secretary of War Edwin Stanton

"Intemperate language" and having brought "disgrace, ridicule, contempt, and reproach" on Congress

Survived by one vote in the Senate

Fourteenth Amendment ratified


Definition of a citizen

Born in the U.S.

Rights of citizens

Privileges and immunities

Life, liberty, and property

Due process

Equal protection

Ban on Confederates holding office

Cancellation of Confederate debts

Election of 1868

Democrat-N.Y. Governor Horatio Seymour

Republican-Ulysses S. Grant

Grant won

Black vote very important

Fifteenth Amendment ratified in 1870

Prohibited discrimination in voting

Effects of Reconstruction


Plantation owners needed workers but had no money

Former slaves and poor whites needed work and a place to live

Landowners divided their land and gave each worker a few acres, seed, tools, and food

When crops were harvested the grower usually had to give 2/3 of the yield to the landowner and kept the rest

Blacks served in government

16 elected to Congress

14 in House

2 in Senate

Hiram Revels of Miss. held Jefferson Davisí old seat

Many elected to state legislatures

No black governors

Black voters outnumbered whites

Many whites were barred from voting or did not out of protest

Scalawags and Carpetbaggers

People who moved to the South and helped blacks vote and supported Radical Reconstruction

Scalawags-white southerners who became Republicans

Carpetbaggers-northerners who came south

Mixed motives

Genuinely opposed slavery and seccesion

Wanted the South to industrialize and thought Republicans would be more likely to do that

Dishonest people who thought they could profit from the situation

Formation of secret societies

Ku Klux Klan-1866

Election of 1872


Horace Greely-Democrat

Grant won

Reconstruction ended

Congress passed the Amnesty Act-1872

Returned right to vote to about 160,000 former Confederates

Freedmen's Bureau allowed to expire-1872

Federal troops withdrawn from the south-1877

Reasons for Reconstruction's demise

No efforts to help blacks achieve economic independence

White resistance

Northern indifference

Blacks achieved freedom now they should take care of themselves

Weary of seemingly endless problems in the South

Thaddeus Stevens was dead and Radicals were losing influence in the Republican Party

Pressing for full civil rights in the South would raise embarrassing questions about segregation in the North

Northern business interests wanted stability in the South

Republicans didnít need the black vote anymore

Republican Party torn by scandal and corruption

Grantís administration plagued by corruption


Election of 1876

Rutherford B. Hayes-Republican

Samuel Tilden-Democrat

Tilden won popular and electoral vote but did not get a majority


Electoral votes in 4 states were in dispute

One from Oregon and the rest from Fla., La., and SC

20 votes

Radicals were still in control of the 3 southern states and had thrown out a number of Democratic ballots

Electoral commission of 8 Republicans and 7 Democrats set up to decide election

All disputed votes were given to Hayes giving him the presidency

Democrats accepted this because a deal was made

Federal troops withdrawn from southern states

Federal money given to build a railroad from Texas to the west coast

Conservative southerner put in cabinet

White supremacy returned to the south

Literacy tests

Poll taxes

White primaries

Grandfather Clause

Jim Crow Laws

Plessy v. Ferguson

Separate but Equal